Cruise on the Hospital Lake
1. Harbor - "Rybakówka"
Dear tourists! Brave globetrotters!The raft journey on Szpitalny Lake / Urzędowy /
begins from a place commonly known as Rybakówka, because for many years there was a
fishing farm that supplied fish to the local market.Człuchowskie lakes abound in many
freshwater species, such as: pike, perch, eel, carp, tench, bream,crucian carp,
whitefish, roach,also catfish, burbot, zander,rudd, and even whitefish.It is worth
knowing that the Szpitalne Lake is part of the once enormous post-glacial water
reservoir called the Luchów Lake. The name of the settlement, and later the town
of Człuchów, comes from this name in a straight line.Just after leaving the marina,
we have the first important information that requires stimulating our own imagination,
because this object has not survived, but someone who visited the castle in Kwidzyn knows it.
Well, from the southern wall of thecastle, a covered porch supported by pillars,
called the German Dansker, in the Polish version Gdanisko or Latryna, protruded into
the lake. It was a place through which all impurities were simply removed directly into
Read more ...... Port "FISHERIES"
The name of the town of Człuchów has been mentioned in written sources in many versions:
1312 - Slochow
1356 - Slochou
1472 - Czlochow
1502 - Schlochow
1565 - To Sluchów
1570 - Czluchow
1624 - Huchov, Huchow
1749 - Człuchow, Schlochau
1880 - Człuchowo, Człochów,
Szłochów, German Schlochau
Etymological analysis indicatestwo versions of the origin of thecity's name:
- The original name "Hearing" comes from the personal name (first name)"Hearing".
- The original name had the form "Sułochow", which was derived from the personal
name (diminutive) "Sułoch"; Sułoch -> Słoch -. In theGerman version, there was a
reduction of -u- and a notation with the foreword cz- / sch- /.
Note 1. The personal name "Sułoch" is a diminutive (!) Of Old Polish names such as
"Sulimir", where * Sulić = promise, promise and Mir = peace.
Note 2.Other such names:
Sulimir - Sulimierz, Sulim, Sulima
Sulisław - Sulisz, Sulej, Sułek,
Sułko, Sulik, Sułosz, Sulęta
Sulibor, Suligost, Sulirad,
2. Flow to the Big City Lake
At the moment, we are sailing along the northern shore of the lake, from where you
can see the defensive walls of the Teutonic Knights castle (considered almost
equal to Malbork) with a 46-meter tower towering over it. At the foot of the walls,
there is Dworcowa Street, situated on a dike built in the 1880s,
connecting the city with the eastern shores of the lake.We are just approaching an
inconspicuous but very important place along Dworcowa Street. It is a flow from the
Szpitalne Lake to the Big City Lake, also known as Łazienkowski Lake. The name
Miejskie Duże is obvious and understandable, while the word Łazienkowskie
commemorates the no longer existing, old, pre-war bathing beach with a beach, piers
and changing rooms.This lake, in turn, is connected by narrow canals with two other
reservoirs, that is the Mały Miejskie Lake and the Rychnowskie Lake.Especially the
latter tempts tourists with the beach, sailing boats, canoes, a water park and fishing.
More …. The flow to the Miejskie Duże Lake
The four lakes mentioned: Szpitalne/ Urzędowe /, Miejskie Duże, Miejskie Małe and
Rychnowskie, actually existed from around 1780-96. Earlier, for centuries, there was one
long, gutter, glacial lake of Huchow with an area of approx. 580 ha, a maximum length of
approx. 6800 m, a maximum width of approx. 1900 m and a maximum depth of approx. 36 m.
These waters were characterized by a diversified coastline, numerous bays, several
islets and a large peninsula called Kujawy. In spring there were frequent floods and
inundations, making these areas dangerous and difficult to pass. Needless to say,around
the lake stretched a huge, mysterious and almost impenetrable forest full of wild animals, but
also all kinds of forest food so as not to starve to death. All these natural values made
the lake of Suszów / Człuchowskiego / difficult, but at the same time an attractive
place to settle. Despite the fact that the arable lands here were sparse and poor,
usually sandy and loam, which is aptly captured by the saying known in Pomerania that
there are only "sticks, sands and karas" here, people earned their living by gathering, bee-keeping,
fishing, hunting, breeding animals, craftsand trade.
3. Grodzisko I.
We are close to the place where theoldest early medieval fortified settlement in this
area was located(incidentally, a street called Grodzisko leads to this place from
the mainland).It was a ring-shaped stronghold with dimensions of 140 x 117 meters,rising
about 1 meter above the waterline. The defensive function was performed by a wooden
palisade and lake waters,marshy meadows and bogs. On the basis of modest archaeological
research from 1965 and 1984, the object is dated from the 9th-11th centuries. In the
vicinity of the settlement, mainly on the eastern and southern shores of the lake,
there were several open settlements.
Read more ........ Grodzisko I.
Grodzisko II. Later (11th-13th centuries), not far from here, namely at the base of the
Kujawy Peninsula, a new settlementwas established. It was probably done by the Wielkopolska
settlers from the Noteć river. They lived here peacefully and safely until the beginning
of the 14th century,when the new owners of this land, the Teutonic Knights, quickly and
accurately appreciated the strategic advantages of the location of the Slavic stronghold.
After digging the moats, the Kujawy peninsula, which cut deepinto the lake's waters on
three sides, was completely separated from the mainland. After dismantling the wooden
stronghold,they built a stone and brick castle in this place, which was astronghold
practically impossible to conquer.
4. Teutonic Castle
The castle itself was built for decades. The construction began after 1312, when the
sons of the Kalisz voivode, Mikołaj of Poniec, sold the Człuchów Land to the Teutonic Order,
given to their father by the Gdańsk prince MściwojII (Mszczuj II) in 1299. After a few
years, probably after 1323, the commandry in Człuchów (formerly the Świecie-Człuchów
commandry) became independent, which meant that the first commander Gunter von Snoze,
together with about 30 monastic knights, could live in the castle chambers. However, the
full completion of the construction of the stronghold can be dated to theyears 1365-67
associated with, among others, with the solemn consecration of the castle chapel.
The castle, the largest and most extensive after the Malbork one,consisted of three
outer wards and a high castle. All parts were surrounded by stone walls, reinforced with 9
owers and 11 gates. Podzamcze had various economic functions, and theso-called There was
a tall castle with dimensions of 47.5 x 47.5 m. It housed the headquarters of the commander,
a chapel, two chapter houses (meeting rooms), a dormitory(bedroom), a refectory(dining
room), a dansker (gdanisko, latrine), and in the basement there were utility rooms, such
as a kitchen,bakery, brewery, etc.It is worth knowing that thecommanders in Człuchów were,
among others:Konrad Wallenrod in the years 1377-1382, at whose home commander - according
to K. Kościński - was a Kashubian nobleman, Jan von Schlochau.Arnold von Baden in 1410,
died at Grunwald.Jan Rabe 1450-1454, the last commander, died in Chojnice.In the north
-west corner of the high castle, the Teutonic Knights erected a monumental octagonal tower,
which to this day, that is for seven centuries, towers over the city, being its symbol
and showcase and the most important point of tourist trips. You must see the recently
unveiled ground floors in the castle courtyard,as well as the surroundings of the castle
with the remains of the defensive walls, the witches'tower,the Luisa gate and
reconstructions of medieval siege machines. The youngest building in this complex is the
former Evangelical church, which was built on the foundations of the chapel in the
More ……. Teutonic Castle
The legend of Szewczyk One of the most intriguing elements of the Człuchów castle tower
is a large field stone protruding in itsupper part. Probably, in the mind of the tower
builders, it was to be a signaling platform for communication with the neighboring Chojnice,
and perhaps Debrzno.But where did the term "cobbler'sstone" come from? The answer, as usual,
when the problem concerns such a mysterious matter, can be found in the legend."Unrequited
love"In the times of the Radziwiłłs, acertain traveling shoemaker'sjourneyman came to Człuchów.
He was a very beautiful young man. No wonder that the local maids liked him, among whom
the starost's daughter was the most beautiful.She too, with reciprocity, won the heart of
a beautiful shoemaker. Soon he appeared at the castle asking for the hand of the old lady.
Angered by the suitor's audacity,the starost ordered him to be imprisonedin the dungeon.
Only the tears of the daughter made the stern master give the lovers a chance. He said to
the released shoemaker: “Your impudencebe forgiven you. You may marry my daughter today,
but there is one condition: you must make a pair of shoes while sitting on that stone at
the top of the tower.Full of hope and enthusiasm,the young man hurried to the place
indicated. Soon there was a clatter of the cobbler's hammerto the merry song. The work was
almost finished when suddenly the hammer fell from the hand of the shoemaker, the shoemaker
leaned down behind him and ... fell from the tower.
5. Chrząstowa / Chrząstawa /.
At the end of the 18th century (1782-1796),in the southern part of Człuchowskie Lake, where
we are currently entering, huge drainage works were carried out,as a result of which the
lake's mirror was lowered by almost 4 meters. It was in 1782 that the canal was dug and,
with the help of a system of dams, dams, weirs and gates, the water was systematically
drained along the Chrząstowa River, which starts here, and then flows along the route in
Jastrów, to join Szczyra under Lędyczek, and after a few kilometers you fall into to Gwda.
Read more ....... Chrząstowa.
Near the mouth of Chrząstowa from the lake, there are allotment gardens called "Promenada"
at ul.Kamienna and Łąkowa established several years ago. At the bottom of a partially drained lake.
Elderly residents of Człuchów recall ho they used to go to the wild bathing beach only along
well-trodden paths or even jump from one clump to another so as not to get fat in the mud.
Near where we are, in the undulating terrai of moraine hills, there is a motocross track known
in Poland, named after Tadeusz Szwemin, and the team of motorcyclists is am ong the national leaders.
Behind the motocross there is a municipal sewage treatment plant.About 2 km from Człuchów,
it is worth stopping at the best gas station in Poland, "Canpol", not only to refuel the car, but also
to visit the forest zoo and give children a chance to play, as there will be plenty of attractions
6. Castle tower
In the Middle Ages, the tower was used by defenders when,as a result of a long siege, it
was necessary to leave the outer ward. It was entered not as today, i.e.from the bottom
(the passage was made in 1825),but through a wicket, which was 16 metershigh, and it was
possible to get to it through a narrow porch from a neighboring building. Stairs inside
the wall led from the gate to the top floor. They opened on to each of the 11 floors.
On individual floors, supplies of food, weapons, ammunition and fuel were stored.
The last two levels are dedicated to the crew. The lower part of the tower was occupied
Read more ....... castle tower
A solidly built tower with a five-meter wall thickness successfully resisted the actions
of time and people who wanted to destroy it. The biggest changes are related to its peak.
For example, a survey from 1565 states that on the tower there is "a large golden pumpkin
with a cross with an eagle and the insignia of the Polish crown." On the other hand, the
inventory from 1717 stated that the steep roof of the tower was burned by lightning.
The currently visible battlements were added around 1845.
"The Legend of Sunken Bells"
In the old days, there was a pointed roof on the tower of the Człuchów castle.
There were - as old Kashubians used to say - three bells; one brass, the other silver
, and the third gold. Once a powerful storm broke out,lightning struck the top of the tower
and knocked it down with the bells into the lake.From then on, during quiet, sunny days.
During summer nights, the reflection of these precious treasures was seen in the depths,
and the soft beating of their brass, silver and gold hearts was heard. There have bee
many daredevils who have tried to get it, but no one has succeeded. It was only the old
hermit who realized that only a young man who was born on Sunday and has never loved
anyone in his life could acquire this miraculous treasure and gain fame.
Eventually, a young boy took the risk. On a warm,quiet Midsummer night, he secretly went
to the lake shore. When the moon cast its wonderful silvery lighton the lake, he saw in the
depths the glow of all three bells lying on the bottom. The young man jumped into the water
without hesitation and followed the unusual vision and the enchanting sound of bell music.
When he reached exactly where the brass bell lay and he had it within reach,the suddenly
changed his mind and continued on. He also omitted the silver bell because greedy human
nature made him swim towards the biggest golden bell.However, as soon as he touched it, he
heard a mighty voice rising from the abyss:"Whoever does not respect the little is not
worthy of the great."
And at that moment all the bells softly sank into the depths of the lake. Since the no one has
seen or heard their sound anymore. And the boy? Neither I know nor anyone knows what happened
7. City of Człuchów
Parallel to the construction of the castle, a dynamically developing servant settlement was
established,because the builders needed craftsmen of various specialties during the
construction of the stronghold and then for the maintenance of the castle.After several years,
the symbiosis of the castle and the city was confirmed by the location privilege issued by
the Grand Master of the Order of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Henryk von Dusemer, on June 19,10348.
Człuchów belonged to the order for 144 years. After the peace of Toruń (1466),which ended
the Thirteen Years' War,it became a royal domain, managed by starosts. For 306 years
(1466-1772) it was ruled by starosts from Pomerania, Greater Poland, the Crown, and even
Lithuania, such as Kościelecki,Latalscy,Wejherowie, Leszczyńscy, Radziwiłłów.The end of Polish
rule in Człuchów came on September 13, 1772, when the officials of the Prussian king Frederick
II seized the city, read the occupation edict, seized the town hall, took over the municipal
and elders'documentation,torn off Polish eagles, suspended the Prussian ones, dissolved the
city council and established the Prussian magistrate.The greatest destruction of the
castle is connected with the Prussian rule. The town, built up with wooden houses,barns and
workshops, experienced a terrible fire in 1793, which turned it into a fire. At that time,
the Prussian king, Frederick William II, consentedto the demolition of most of the brick
castle buildings and the so-called starost's palace. Roof tiles and bricks were used to
rebuild the city and were sold. And the rubble covered the entirecourtyard of the castle
with a thick layer. The chapel's furnishings were saved; the renaissance altar was moved
to Chrząstów, the pulpit to Krępsk, and the bell from 1527 to the parish church in Człuchów.
Read more …… .. The town of Człuchów
From 1818, as a result of the administrative reform, Człuchów becomes a district town.
The nineteenth and twentieth centuries brought significant development to the city, which
is illustrated by the following table:
1. Postal route from Berlin and Szczecin - through Człuchów - to Królewiec, the so-called
Berlinka(end of 18th century).
Człuchów-Biały Bór (1849);
4. Cobbled square (1825) and cobbled streets (1849).
5. Oil street lamps (1844),gas street lamps (1888).
6. Hospital (1865); in the present building (1892).
7. Slaughterhouse (1888).
8. Electric light (1918).
9. Waterworks (1925).
10. Small industry: cement factory,sawmills, steam mill, dairy, rack mill, oil mill.
11. Primary schools and high school.He stayed in the hands of the German Człuchów for
173 years (1772-1945).